Everyone should know what to in an Emergency. Whenever there is an emergency, use the following tips to help decide if you should call 9-1-1 (or local emergency number) for an ambulance.
911 should be called IMMEDIATELY for any emergency which is threatening to life, health, safety, or property. This includes crimes in progress, medical problems, suspicious persons or activities. Fire emergencies, criminal offenses, drug activity, and domestic problems should also be promptly reported to 9-1-1.
Non-emergency requests for service should be directed to an administrative number. Add your local number to your emergency contacts. Listen to the recorded options and select the line # for non emergency. Stay on the line until a dispatcher answers.
Call if victim…
… is trapped
… is not responding or is passed out
… is bleeding badly or bleeding cannot be stopped
… has a cut or wound so bad and deep that you can see bone or muscles
… has a body part missing or is torn away
… has pain below the rib cage that does not go away
… is peeing, pooping or puking blood (called passing blood)
… is breathing weird or having trouble breathing
… seems to have hurt their head, neck or back
… is jerking uncontrollably (called having a seizure)
… has broken bones and cannot be moved carefully
… acts like they had a heart attack (chest pain or pressure)
… If you call 9-1-1 there may be a recording or delay while your call is being processed. DO NOT HANG UP — wait for a 9-1-1 dispatcher.
When you talk to 9-1-1 or the emergency number…
… try to stay CALM and describe what happened and what is wrong with the victim
… give the location of the emergency, your name and the phone number you are calling from
… follow their instructions in case they tell you what to do for the victim
… do NOT hang up until the 9-1-1 operator tells you to.
Since you are calling from a cell phone, your call may be disconnected if the signal is lost. Be sure to call back if you are cut off.
… When calling 9-1-1 on a cellular phone, be sure to stop if you are in a moving vehicle. It is difficult to obtain all of the information needed if you are getting further from the emergency.
… Your call may need to be transferred to another agency because cell phone calls are sent to a 9-1-1 answering point based on cell radio coverage. Cell coverage areas don’t always match political boundaries, so most calls are routed to a 9-1-1 answering point that serves the majority of the area.
Reproduced with Permission:
http://www.ItsaDisaster.net from “It’s a Disaster …and what are YOU gonna do about it?”, by Bill and Janet Liebsch
Morgan County, TN ”911 Tips” version of above
TIPS ON GOOD SAMARITAN LAWS
The definition of a “Samaritan” is a charitable or helpful person. Most states have Good Samaritan laws that were designed to protect citizens who try to help injured victims with emergency care. If a citizen uses “logical” or “rational” actions while making wise or careful decisions during an emergency situation then they can be protected from being sued.
To learn more about your state’s Good Samaritan laws, check with your local library, search the web or contact an attorney.
Whenever you perform first aid on anyone, there is always a chance of spreading germs or diseases between yourself and the victim. These steps should be followed no matter what kind of first aid is being done — from very minor scrapes to major emergencies — to reduce the risk of infection.
BE AWARE…this is an emergency situation – you could be putting yourself in danger!
… Try to avoid body fluids like blood or urine (pee).
… Cover any open cuts or wounds you have on your body since they are doorways for germs!
BE PREPARED…Stay calm and Think before you act
… Wash your hands with soap and water before and after giving first aid. If using hand sanitizer, rub hands for at least 15 seconds.
… Have a first aid kit handy, if possible.
… Put something between yourself and victim’s body fluids, if possible
… Blood or urine – wear disposable gloves or use a clean dry cloth
… Saliva or spittle – use a disposable Face Shield during Rescue Breathing
… Clean up area with household bleach to kill germs.
… and… HAVE A PLAN! Check the ABC’s, call 9-1-1 and help victim
Airway. Open the airway by tilting the head back, gently lifting the jaw up, and leaving mouth open.
Breathing. Place your ear over victim’s mouth and nose. Look at chest, listen, and feel for breathing for 3-5 seconds.
Circulation. Check for a pulse using fingertips (not your thumb) in the soft spot between throat and the muscle on the side of the neck for 5-10 seconds.
Before giving first aid, you must have the victim’s permission. Tell them who you are, how much training you’ve had, and how you plan to help. Do not give care to someone who refuses it – unless they are unable to respond. Reproduced with Permission: http://www.ItsaDisaster.net “It’s a Disaster …and what are YOU gonna do about it?”
Did you know that most deaths due to winter storms are indirectly related to the storm? People die of hypothermia from prolonged exposure to cold. They also die in traffic accidents on icy roads.
You may be familiar with the terms frostbite and hypothermia, but it’s important to be familiar with the warning signs of each.
Frostbite is damaging to body tissue caused by that tissue being frozen. Frostbite causes loss of feeling and a white or pale appearance in extremities, such as fingers, toes, ear lobes or the tip of the nose. If symptoms are detected, get medical help immediately. If you must wait for help, slowly rewarm affected areas. However, if the person is also showing signs of hypothermia, warm the body core before the extremities.
The warning signs include:
• Uncontrollable shivering
• Memory loss
• Slurred speech
• Apparent exhaustion
If you notice any of the warning signs, start by taking the person’s temperature. If it’s below 95 F (35 C), immediately seek medical care. If medical care is not available, begin warming the person slowly. Warm the body core first. If needed, use your own body heat to help.
Get the person into dry clothing, wrap them in a warm blanket, covering the head and neck. Do not give the person any hot beverage or food; warm broth is best. Do not warm extremities first, as it can drive cold blood toward the heart and lead to heart failure.
TIPS TO STAYING WARM
Wear a hat or wool stocking cap, because more than 50% of the body’s heat is lost through the head or neck area.
Keep your feet dry by wearing a thin pair of polypropylene socks underneath heavy wool socks. The wool socks will wick moisture away from your feet.
Cover your mouth to protect your lungs from extreme cold. Also, mittens, snug at the wrist, are better than gloves.
THE C.O.L.D. RULE
When dealing with winter survival, the C.O.L.D. acronym can help you stay safe and warm.
• Keep your body and clothes Clean
• Avoid Overheating
• Dress in loose Layers of clothing that will trap body heat
• Keep clothes Dry
November, 2011 Every Needful Thing Jason M. Carlton
Red Cross can help families “Get Trained”
One quarter of Americans say they’ve been in a situation where someone needed CPR. If you were one of them, would you know what to do?
Studies have shown that being trained in hands-only CPR can make the lifesaving difference when someone suffers sudden cardiac arrest.
Join the millions of people we train each year by taking a 30-minute Citizen CPR class at your local Red Cross chapter. The course teaches how the hands-only technique can save a life.
Download the Hands-only CPR Ready Reference sheet depicting the steps of this technique in English and Spanish.
The Red Cross also offers courses that certify people in first aid, full CPR and using Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs).
What is hands-only CPR?
Hands-only CPR is a potentially lifesaving technique involving no mouth to mouth contact. It is best used in emergencies where someone has seen another person suddenly collapse.
The hands-only technique increases the likelihood of surviving cardiac emergencies that occur outside medical settings.
How is full CPR different from hands-only CPR?
Full CPR combines rescue breaths with chest compressions and is the best option in some emergencies, including those involving infants and children, drowning victims, or people who
collapse due to breathing problems.
How else can I get involved?
The American Red Cross wants to educate 5 million people about hands-only CPR. Will you help us spread the word about this lifesaving technique?
Click below the graphic below to access additional information about American Red Cross classes in your area.
October, 2011 Every Needful Thing Jason M. Carlton
Understanding the dangers of Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Monoxide, known by the chemical formula “CO”, is a poisonous gas that kills approximately 534 people in the United States every year. Of that number, roughly 207 were killed by CO emitted from a consumer product like a stove or water heater. You can’t hear, taste, see or smell it. It’s nicknamed the Silent Killer because it sneaks up on its victims and can take lives without warning.
CO is a by-product of incomplete combustion, and its sources often include malfunctioning appliances that operate by burning fossil fuels. When these malfunctioning appliances aren’t adequately ventilated, the amount of CO in the air may rise to a level that may cause illness or death. Other CO sources include vehicle exhaust, blocked chimney flues, fuel-burning cooking appliances used for heating purposes, and charcoal grills used in the home, tent, camper, garage or other unventilated areas.
When victims inhale CO, the toxic gas enters the bloodstream and replaces the oxygen molecules found on the critical blood component, hemoglobin, depriving the heart and brain of the oxygen necessary to function.
The following symptoms of CO poisoning should be discussed with all members of the household:
• Mild Exposure: Flu-like symptoms, including headache, nausea, vomiting and fatigue.
• Medium Exposure: Severe throbbing headache, drowsiness, confusion, fast heart rate.
• Extreme Exposure: Unconsciousness, convulsions, cardiorespiratory failure, death.
Young children and household pets are typically the first affected. Carbon Monoxide alarms are intended to signal at CO levels below those that cause a loss of ability to react to the danger of CO exposure.
CO detectors are not a replacement for proper use and maintenance of fuel-burning appliances.
CO Safety Precautions
Install a CO detector in the hallway near every separate sleeping area of the home and make sure it cannot be covered up by furniture or draperies.
• NEVER burn charcoal inside a home, garage, vehicle, or tent.
• NEVER use portable fuel-burning camping equipment inside a home, garage, vehicle, or tent.
• NEVER leave a car running in an attached garage, even when the garage door is open.
• NEVER service fuel-burning appliances without proper knowledge, skills and tools.
• NEVER use gas appliances such as ranges, ovens or clothes dryers for heating your home.
• NEVER operate unvented fuel-burning appliances in any room with closed doors or windows, or in any room where people are sleeping.
• NEVER use gas-powered tools and engines indoors.
October, 2011 Every Needful Thing Jason M. Carlton
Have you checked the prices on various emergency preparedness items and been discouraged by the price tag? If so, you wouldn’t be alone.
Rather than giving up on your efforts to be prepared, you can usually gather a couple of neighbors together and organize a group buy on various items – water barrels, 72-hour kits, and even Sun Ovens.
By organizing a larger buy, the company often provides a volume discount, which saves the buyer anywhere from $10 to $50, depending
on the item and quantity. The best way to know how many items you would need to buy in order to make it worth the effort is to do a little research.
The Internet provides valuable information on organizations, and something as simple as a phone call can be very helpful.
With the holiday season quickly approaching, group buys may be an excellent way to gather various presents for extended family members, and that may also allow you to take advantage of seasonal sales and promotions, too.
Thinking about doing a Sun Oven group buy? Click here.
October 2011, Every Needful Thing Jason M. Carlton
We’re three-fourths of the way through our series on preparing to execute an emergency preparedness drill in your neighborhood. We hope you are taking this information to your neighbors and encouraging them to be prepared, too.
The adjacent article talks about using radios in an emergency, but the best way to know how to use your radios is to do just that – Use it.
My neighborhood conducts a weekly radio check, which lasts only a couple of minutes, but serves as an opportunity for neighbors to practice using their radios, so in a disaster, they don’t have to try and learn.
Every Sunday at 8:30 p.m. on channel 8, subchannel 1, our communication specialists welcomes everyone to the call and invites them to check in by stating their name.
Once everyone has checked in (which is usually 3-7 people), we open it up for conversation about any topic on preparedness.
These scheduled radio checks keep radios charged and used, so in an emergency, my neighborhood understands how to use them, which gives me a lot of peace of mind. Jason M. Carlton
Did you play with walkie-talkies as a child? Did you ever think that one day you would be using them as a means of communicating in a disaster? Well, if phone lines and cell towers are damaged in an emergency, a set of Family Radio Service (FRS) devices can help your neighborhood mobilize and communicate faster than boys on bikes.
In order for this tool to work most effectively, members of your neighborhood would need to have, and know how to use, FRS radios. Here are two things to consider when selecting the one that’s right for you:
1. The longer the range on your radio, the better you will be able to communicate throughout your neighborhood. FRS radios are line-of-sight transmissions. So if you have a lot of houses and trees between you and the person on the other end, communication may be difficult. For example, a radio that boasts 32 miles, may only provide two-miles in a populated neighborhood.
2. Many radios come with non-removable, rechargeable packs. These can wear out over time. The recommendation is to go with a radio that can also have this rechargeable pack replaced with AA batteries, which may help strengthen the signal when needed.
3. FRS radios contain channels, as well as subchannels. Make sure your radio has subchannel capabilities; otherwise you may be able to hear your neighbors, but not have the ability to communicate back to them.
These radios offer multiple channels that can be used in an emergency, so if your neighborhood needs to communicate, you must coordinate a channel on which all communication will take place. For example, your neighborhood can plan to communicate on channel 8, subchannel 1, while the neighborhood adjacent to yours can take channel 9, subchannel 1.
Another best practice is to designate a communications specialist for your neighborhood who can direct all radio traffic. This person will keep things orderly when crisis strikes and help those seeking to identify families’ needs obtain the information vital to responding.
October, 2011 Every Needful Thing Jason M. Carlton
Did you know that most fatal home fires occur at night when people are asleep? A person who is asleep or disoriented by toxic gases may not realize there is a fire, so smoke detectors can save your life.
A good detector or alarm should be loud, have batteries that are easily replaced, a malfunction signal, easy maintenance and cleaning, and a UL (Underwriter’s Laboratory), FM (Factory Mutual) or equivalent testing label.
Types of Smoke Detectors
There are two types of smoke alarms available: photoelectric and ionization. When smoke enters a photoelectric alarm, light from a pulsating light source is reflected off the smoke particles and into a light sensor, which triggers the alarm. When smoke enters an ionization alarm, ionized air molecules attach to the smoke particles and reduce the ionizing current, triggering the alarm.
Photoelectric alarms generally respond faster to smoldering smoke conditions, while ionization alarms respond faster to flaming fire conditions. Either way, both types provide adequate protection.
There is Safety in Numbers
The Utah Safety Council recommends the installation of at least one smoke detector outside every bedroom and on every level of your home. Others recommend:
• A detector on each level of the house as an absolute minimum.
• A smoke detector in each bedroom, in the hallway closest to each sleeping area and in heavily-occupied areas like the living room.
• When bedroom doors are left open, you should have at least one detector in the hallway outside the bedroom area.
Test, Clean and Maintain
Working smoke alarms are needed in every home and residence. Most models will make a chirping, popping or beeping sound when the battery is losing its charge. When this sound is heard, install a fresh battery, preferably an alkaline type. Test and maintain smoke alarms at least once a month, or follow the manufacturer’s instructions. Smoke alarms often fail because of missing, dead or disconnected batteries
“Safety experts recommend replacing smoke alarm batteries when clocks are changed for Daylight Savings Time”
October, 2011 Every Needful Thing Jason M. Carlton
The actual execution of the drill is a powerful way to identify just how ready you and your neighbors are. Taking into account the previous three items discussed in this newsletter (organizing block captains, color codes of emergencies, and radio communication), here are the final elements to carrying out a successful drill.
PICK A DATE & TIME
The drill works best on a Saturday morning, between the hours of 7 a.m. and 10 a.m. Select a Saturday that will work best for your neighbors by taking into account school events, or sports games. Plan for the event four weeks in advance, so you have time to coordinate with block captains and other participants.
DESIGNATE DAMAGED HOUSES & INJURIES
Using the color codes, assign 15-20 yellow and red cards to random houses throughout your designated area. Write something on the card explaining the situation.
If you have difficulties identifying homeowners to participate, ask them if you can simply attach the card to an exterior portion of the house, and the participating block captain can simply read the card, rather than knocking and interrupting the homeowner.
SELECT THE RADIO CHANNEL
If you haven’t already designated a FRS channel for your radio, pick the one you plan to use for the drill, and communicate that to participating block captains.
At the designated start time, announce over the radio that the drill has begun. Block captains will proceed to check their designated homes and report back to the Coordination Center.
The coordinator will keep a list of the damage and injuries reported by the block captains.
If you have CERT teams in your neighborhood, they can discuss how they would address each of the injuries. If some areas are missing block captains, the coordinator will need to direct block captains who have completed their own sweep to survey other blocks, too.
Once everything has been reported, get everyone together and debrief the event. This is where you will learn the most, and can implement any best practices into your next drill.
November, 2011 Every Needful Thing Jason M.Carlton
Ready Kids & The Federal Emergency Management Agency present:
Family Supply List
Water, food, and clean air are important things to have if an emergency happens. Each family or
individual’s kit should be customized to meet specific needs, such as medications and infant formula.
It should also be customized to include important family documents.
Recommended Supplies to Include in a Basic Kit:
- Water, one gallon of water per person per day, for drinking and sanitation
- Food, at least a three-day supply of non-perishable food
- Battery-powered radio and a NOAA Weather Radio with tone alert, and extra batteries for both
- Flashlight and extra batteries
- First Aid kit
- Whistle to signal for help
- Infant formula and diapers, if you have an infant
- Moist towelettes, garbage bags and plastic ties for personal sanitation
- Dust mask or cotton t-shirt, to help filter the air
- Plastic sheeting and duct tape to shelter-in-place
- Wrench or pliers to turn off utilities
- Can opener for food (if kit contains canned food)
Clothing and Bedding:
If you live in a cold weather climate, you must think about warmth. It is possible that the power will be
out and you will not have heat. Rethink your clothing and bedding supplies to account for growing
children and other family changes. One complete change of warm clothing and shoes per person,
- A jacket or coat
- Long pants
- A long sleeve shirt
- Sturdy shoes
- A hat and gloves
- A sleeping bag or warm blanket for each person
Consider these items
Below are some other items for your family to consider adding to its supply kit. Some of these items,
especially those marked with a * can be dangerous, so please have an adult collect these supplies.
- Emergency reference materials such as a first aid book or a print out of the information on
- Rain gear
- Mess kits, paper cups, plates and plastic utensils
- Cash or traveler’s checks, change
- Paper towels
- Fire Extinguisher
- Matches in a waterproof container*
- Signal flare*
- Paper, pencil
- Personal hygiene items including feminine supplies
- Household chlorine bleach* – You can use bleach as a disinfectant (diluted nine parts water to one
part bleach), or in an emergency you can also use it to treat water. Use 16 drops of regular household
liquid bleach per gallon of water. Do not use scented, color safe or bleaches with added cleaners.
- Medicine dropper
- Important Family Documents such as copies of insurance policies, identification and bank account
records in a waterproof, portable container
September 2013, every Needful Thing Billie A. Nicholson, editor